Thursday, December 14, 2017 17:12

Symptoms And Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

Posted by on Monday, June 22, 2009, 12:53
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Without insulin, cells cannot take up glucose, so it accumulates in the bloodstream to reach three to four times the normal level. This elevated level of blood sugar leads to a number of effects than can harm a diabetic’s health.

One problem in diabetes is that diabetics cannot regulate the amount of water in the body as well as normal people. There are several reasons for this. First, a high concretion of glucose in the blood tends to cause water to leave cells.

This is due to a physical property called osmosis, according to which water will always flow from a dilute of sugar into  a more concentrated solution of sugar if the two solutions are separated from each other by a porous membrane that lets water, but not other molecules, pass through.

Osmosis is nature’s way of attempting to make the concretions of sugar in two different solutions equal, in diabetics, it causes water in cells to flow out through the membrane surrounding them and into the more concentrated solution of sugar in the bloodstream.

All this water eventually reaches the kidneys, which filter the blood to remove wastes. The kidneys cannot prevent high levels of glucose from passing into the urine. Loss of all this water and suggar in the urine is the reason why diabetic people, and diabetic rats, drink and eat so much but still lose weight. Also, high levels of blood glucose tend to damage structures in the kidney that filter the blood, so that diabetics may eventually have abnormal kidney function.

What can be done to help diabetics? Moderate, regular exercise is one thing that seems to help, since exercise somehow males muscles more sensitive to insulin and and allows them to remove some of the glucose from the blood.

Once in a while, exercise can actually makes muscles too sensitive to insulin , so that to much glucose is removed from the blood, making a diabetic feel sick or faint. This is why diabetics can eat sweets in these occasional emergency situations when their blood sugar actually falls to low. Eating the sweets raises their blood sugar and makes them feel better.

Eating regularly spaced, moderate meals is also helpful in preventing blood sugar in diabetics from becoming too high or too low. Also, drugs can be taken to stimulate the secretion of insulin by the pancreas.

Finally injections of insulin can be used to regulate blood sugar. Nowdays, specially modified forms of insulin are available that are slowly absorbed from the injection site and act for a long time, allowing a minimal number of injections per day. More recent advances involve miniature insulin pumps that introduce a steady flow of insulin into the bloodstream.

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